Extension Publications… Flashback Friday

Several years ago I was cleaning out a filing cabinet I inherited when I started with Nebraska Extension. There were some fun publications I came across. At the time they were very real issues, and today they are still relevant.

Chickens

Hemp
Published in 1935, reissued in 1943. 

Have you ever found anything interesting cleaning out old files?


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Clay pot chicken with 40 cloves of garlic

I have had a lot fun experimenting with cooking in my clay pot. The first thing we made were the Cornish Game Hens, which were good, but they were not great. In my research of clay pot cooking I found a recipe for chicken with 40 cloves of garlic – yum! As a garlicholic I knew we had to try this.

claypot-final
I covered my pot in a 5-gallon bucket worth of water (perfect size I might add), and let it soak while I peeled 40 cloves of garlic.
garlic - final
The garlic, yes I counted to make sure I had 40. Would hate to short change the recipe 🙂

Garlic hack: throw your garlic in the freezer with skin on, I just put it in a ziplock bag (left). When you are ready to use it, pull out what you need (top right), peel it (bottom right), and use as you would with fresh garlic. Fresh garlic can sprout or rot quickly, and it can make your house smell a little fragrant (bologna like). I have had garlic in my freezer up to year, and it is just perfect when I use it!

Claypot chicken - raw
I lightly coated the chicken in olive oil (the recipe calls for butter, but that is too messy for me, as I learned in the Cornish Hen cooking) and seasoned with my favorite poultry rub. I put a few cloves of garlic under it, inside of it, and sprinkled the rest over the top, and put just a touch of lemon juice over the top. Doesn’t it look beautiful?
Clay pot chicken with 40 cloves of garlic-cooked
TAA-DAA!! The last few minutes I cooked it with the lid off so it would brown.

The original recipe called for 50 minutes with the lid on, but it took this one about 70 minutes with the lid on (size of the bird probably has something to do with it). Make sure to check the internal temperature with your meat thermometer to ensure it is at least 165 degrees Fahrenheit.

This recipe was great! The meat was so tender and juicy and the garlic was amazing too. We will definitely be making this again.

Enjoy!

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Meat: To wash or not wash?

To wash or not wash your meat before cooking… This has been a discussion of debate for a long time. Well wait no longer dear readers, the verdict is in.

Dr. Jonathan Campbell, meat extension specialist at Penn State University, says“from a food safety standpoint, it’s a bad idea because we can potentially spread the bacteria that are on the meat to all other areas of our kitchen. That makes the food safety hazard even worse.” Campbell adds that washing meat also is not effective at removing all of the potential bacteria, which is best accomplished by cooking the meat to the proper internal temperature as confirmed with a meat thermometer.

A new Meat MythCrusher video produced by the North American Meat Institute and the American Meat Science Association also discusses the best strategies for safely removing meat from packaging to avoid any cross contamination and the proper temperatures for various cuts of meat and poultry.

 

If interested, the Drexel University website discussed in the video is found at Don’t Wash Your Chicken.

germ vision
Source: Drexel University, Don’t Wash Your Chicken

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Poultry without the poultry show

Poultry shows in Nebraska were banned in 2015 due to Avian Influenza. But the youth at our county show did a great job with other poultry projects/contests…

** Note: to protect the anonymity of the youth I have covered all personal information as well as their faces.

Egg carton art - final
Egg carton art! How creative are they?
Art-final
2-D and 3-D art!

And let’s not forget the rooster crowing contest… I bet you can pick out the crowd favorite.

What did your kids and/or county fairs do this year if poultry were banned?

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Dr. Lindsay can also be found on:

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Scientists develop effective bird flu vaccine

2015 will go down as a devastating year for the poultry industry, with Avian Influenza (i.e. bird flu) as the culprit. Whether you are a poultry and/or egg farmer, a youth preparing for a 4-H/FFA show, or are just trying to buy eggs at the grocery store – you have probably been affected.

Several states have cancelled their youth poultry shows and exhibitions. This year at our county fair  (in Nebraska) we are looking forward to the alternative poultry projects of an educational showmanship poster contest, poultry art, coops/feeders/waterers, and the rooster crowing contest. The poultry (without the poultry) contest should still be educational and fun.

The USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) has reported that more than 48 million birds have been affected by the current avian influenza outbreak which has hit 15 states.

Aviary Systems (2)_UNL photo-finalThe Associated Press (AP) announced Tom Vilsack, U.S. Agriculture Secretary, reported scientists have developed a vaccine strain has tested 100% effective in protecting chickens from the bird flu. Testing is currently underway to see if it also protects turkeys. If it does, the agency plans to quickly license it for widespread production and is seeking funding from the Office of Management and Budget to stockpile it nationally.

“Hopefully we’ll be able to get a lot of folks working collaboratively together and we stockpile enough so that if this does hit and hits us hard we’re in a position to respond quickly,” Vilsack said. “Developing a vaccine targeted to the H5N2 virus that has killed 48 million birds since early March in 15 states, including hardest-hit Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska, is one aspect of planning for a potential recurrence of the bird flu,”  says Vilsack.

Scientists believe the virus is spread through the droppings of wild birds migrating north to nesting grounds. They’re concerned it could return this fall when birds fly south for the winter or again next spring. Southern and eastern states including Alabama, Arkansas, and Georgia, states that raise chickens for meat, are worried it could spread there next.

Not all poultry producers are on the same page when it comes to using vaccine to fight an outbreak.

Turkey producers tend to favor vaccination to protect flocks because turkey immune systems appear more vulnerable to viruses. Some egg producers and farmers who raise broilers (chickens produced for meat) often resist vaccination programs because of the possible impact on export markets. U.S. producers export nearly $6 billion worth of poultry and egg products yearly with about $5 billion of that being chicken meat.

“There are many unanswered questions that must be addressed before any strong consideration is given to a vaccination program,” said Tom Super, a spokesman for the National Chicken Council, which represents 95% of U.S. broiler raising chicken farmers. “Two concerns of several are the effectiveness of the vaccine and potential impacts on trade.”

Meetings also have been held with importers of U.S. poultry products to try and convince them not to block all poultry imports if a vaccination program is enacted in response to another outbreak. “That’s still an open question and we’ve been working with a number of countries today to get them convinced to ban regionally as opposed to the entire country,” Vilsack said.

Many countries have a strict policy of refusing to accept meat from nations using a vaccine because it can be difficult to discern through testing whether birds were infected with an active virus or were vaccinated, said James Sumner, president of the USA Poultry & Egg Export Council. Even during the current outbreak which affected 15 states, about 10 trade partners banned poultry imports from the entire U.S., Sumner said.

Vilsack said it’s uncertain when a vaccine would be ready for large-scale production. Even once stockpiled, a vaccination program would not begin until the USDA, consulting with affected states, decided it was necessary to control an outbreak.

Read the entire AP article here.

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Dr. Lindsay can also be found on:

– Website (http://food.unl.edu/ag-and-food)
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Avian Influenza: Guidelines for Backyard Poultry Flocks

The Nebraska Department of Agriculture recently decided to cancel all poultry shows, sales, and swap-meets as a proactive measure designed to increase biosecurity and decrease the potential spread of Avian Influenza.

This article (written by myself and Dr. Sheila Purdum, UNL Poultry Specialist) will provide information about Avian Influenza and suggest recommendations for small or backyard flock owners. Avian Influenza can affect all birds, regardless of housing arrangement or size of flock.

What birds can be infected? The AI virus will infect: chickens, turkeys, quail, ducks, geese, guinea fowl, and a wide variety of other birds.

Avian Influenza Symptoms: Lethargic (tired) or listless, depression, decreased egg production, coughing, sneezing, wet eyes, huddling, ruffled feathers, decreased food and/or water consumption, or a high temperature/fever. In three to five days there may be an 80-90% mortality rate. In your flock, if mortality increases, contact your local veterinarian immediately so they can help you get viable swabs to a lab as soon as possible.

Understanding Influenza: Cases of AI started popping up on the West Coast in December 2014 and have since moved east. The influenza virus is not new or uncommon. People get seasonal influenza (Types A and B) and swine get influenza (Type A). Most currently, we are familiar with Avian Influenza (Type A) which affects all types of birds. Within each type there are various H (16) and N (9) types, hence why you may see the viruses reported as H5N2. Additionally, viruses get together and exchange genetic material, re-sorting and mutating – making it challenging to effectively treat a virus.

Avian Influenza can either be referred to as Highly Pathogenic (HP) or Low Pathogenic (LP). High pathogenic indicates it is a severe and highly infectious disease – to cause an outbreak, only the amount of virus that will fit on the head of a pin is needed. With HP, there may be an 80-95% mortality rate in as little as five days. The HP is usually types H5 or H7. Low pathogenic on the other hand is a mild disease, with a low mortality rate usually caused from a secondary bacterial infection. The LP types are H1, H3, H5, H7, or H9.

Highly Pathogenic flocks DO NOT enter the food supply. They are humanely euthanized and properly disposed of by composting or burial.

Sources of infection and spread: Wild migratory water fowl are the natural host, which means they can become infected but they do not generally get sick and/or die from the infection. However, they will spread it to other healthy hosts (i.e. birds), making them sick or resulting in death. The wild migratory water fowl will shed large amounts of virus into the environment via ponds, waterways, as well as onto grain fields in the spring or fall when large numbers congregate together. Sparrows act as a bridge between waterways where the virus host birds have been and poultry barns or backyard flocks. Sparrows are attracted to small puddles of water in which they bathe, drink, or look for insects to eat. In addition to infected birds visiting your healthy birds, shared equipment and people are sources of possible contamination. The AI can also be spread via wind – more specifically, dust and feathers may be vectors (although this is not the primary method of how the virus is spread). Nasal secretions may also be a source of contamination.

How long can the virus survive? Survival of the influenza virus depends on the strain. Fortunately, highly pathogenic (HP) strains do not usually survive as long as LP strains.

  • The influenza virus will survive on a clean surface for two days.
  • In fecal material or compost, the virus will survive for about 10 days (very important to know if you are doing dead animal composting).
  • In liquid manure, the influenza virus can survive in winter for 105 days.
  • While feces protect the virus, temperature also has a dramatic effect:
    • If feces are at 40o Fahrenheit, the virus will survive 30-35 days
    • If feces are at 70o Fahrenheit, the virus will survive seven days
    • If feces are at 90o Fahrenheit, the virus will survive four days
    • If the drinking/bathing water is at 66o Fahrenheit, the virus will survive 94-160 days
    • If the drinking/bathing water is at 88o Fahrenheit, the virus will survive 26-30 days

Things that help the virus thrive: Cold or freezing temperatures, fresh or slightly salty water, grain fields or water located in convenient locations, inadequate biosecurity, and possibly strong winds.

Things that hurt the virus: warm weather, dryness/sunshine, salt water, most disinfectants, high level of biosecurity, frozen lakes/rivers, and a surveillance program.

Is there treatment options available for the birds? Currently, there is no immunity in poultry flocks as they are not regularly vaccinated. At this time, vaccinations are only permitted for LP flocks. The USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and state vets are determining if vaccination can be used as an emergency procedure for HP birds. At this time, vaccine is not available and still under review.

What if I find a dead wild bird at/near my home or an area I visit regularly? To error on the side of caution, it is recommended to call your State Veterinarian (a list of state vets and their contact information can be found at: https://www.avma.org/advocacy/stateandlocal/stateanimalhealthofficials/pages/default.aspx) and arrange to have a sample sent to the National Poultry Disease Lab in Ames, Iowa. Your local veterinarian can assist with getting the sample packaged and sent. Again, it is important to note, if you have wild birds on your property, you should proceed with strict biosecurity protocols for your backyard poultry flock’s health and safety.

What should I use to disinfect shoes/equipment/eggs? A low to mild Clorox solution (three parts bleach to two parts water), soapy sanitizers, or other disinfectants mixed per label instructions.

What happens if I have to depopulate my flock? Thoroughly disinfect everything. Allow the amount of time needed, as provided above, to pass. During this time, review your biosecurity plan and look for areas that could be made stronger. Do you know when and/or how your flock became infected? What will you change as a result?

Risk to humans: The risk of contracting AI is low to negligible in humans. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reports that to date, there have been no reported illnesses or spread to human hosts. Precautions are recommended for workers depopulating and euthanizing HP flocks in large barns. First signs of symptoms for this potential population is respiratory problems and/or conjunctivitis, anti-viral drugs may be given as a precaution.

Are poultry products still safe to consume? Yes! Avian flu CANNOT be transmitted through safely handled and properly cooked poultry meat and/or egg products. The World Health Organization (WHO) has determined HP can survive in poultry, but keep in mind, HP flocks do not enter the food supply! If you notice a bird in your backyard flock has come down with the AI symptoms, do not consume that bird! Contact your local veterinarian and dispose of it as directed. Table eggs sold in retail markets are sanitized prior to human consumption. If you are raising/buying eggs that are locally sourced, ensure from the supplier they are being properly sanitized.

What do the next six months look like? The U.S. has the strongest surveillance program in the world. Unfortunately, this is not over yet and the impact on the poultry and egg industry is unknown. The number of cases will hopefully decrease over the summer as temperatures increase. However, the virus outbreaks may increase again in the fall as migratory birds go to fields to forage for grains.

What can I do to protect my flock? Biosecurity = risk management! Put as many procedures in place as possible to prevent the introduction of disease causing organisms into your barns and onto your farm.

  • Increase the level of biosecurity!
  • Bring birds indoors, get them away from open sources of water that other birds are drinking from or defecating in.
  • Provide clean and sanitary water to your birds:
    • If your flock is drinking from standing water sources, those water sources need to be completely blocked off so that small wild birds cannot access the water, thus potentially contaminating your flock.
    • If you are not able to use clean well water, water from other sources will need to be sanitized before it is used or may cause disease outbreak.
    • The AI virus will survive for longer periods of time in silt and mud in cool temperatures at the bottom of ponds (at 63o F, the virus will survive up to 100).
  • Do not allow your birds to graze or be on pastures where wild birds have access.
  • Limit traffic to your flock and your facility. If you are selling eggs or meat, consider meeting customers off your farm to decrease the potential for the AI virus to come to your farm.
  • Only allow authorized personnel to be near your poultry. This may be just immediately family. Do not allow any unnecessary visitors.
  • Determine if your personal biosecurity plan is strict enough. Do you have a sanitizing foot bath? Do you have a vehicle or equipment sanitizing plan?
  • Do you have a plan for people to change clothes before and after working with or near poultry?
  • If traveling out of state or to another poultry facility please use all good biosecurity precautions.
  • New stock should only be introduced from sources you are sure are AI free and not from areas in or near an AI outbreak.
  • If you are selling eggs: thoroughly clean and disinfect each egg prior to giving to the client. Only re-use clean cartons (no debris or dust).
  • If you and/or your family have visited a state park or other common place where water fowl frequent, please use extra precaution on cleaning shoes, vehicles, clothes, or any equipment to ensure you do not infect your flock.

Sources:

Carver, Donna (2015). Presenting avian influenza in backyard poultry flocks. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service.

Purdum, S. (2015 April). H5N2 Avian Flu. UNL MarketJournal.

USDA: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. (2015 June). Avian Influenza Disease.

USDA: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. (2015 June). Update on Avian Influenza Findings.

Wojcinski, H. (2015). Avian Influenza: What you need to know. Hybrid Genetics. Recorded presentation.

Aviary Systems (2)_UNL photo-final

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Dr. Lindsay can also be found on:

– Website (http://food.unl.edu/ag-and-food)
– Twitter/Instagram (agwithdrlindsay)
– Facebook (https://www.facebook.com/agwithdrlindsay)
– Pinterest (Lindsay Chichester-Medahunsi)

Avian Influenza-Nebraska Update

Avian Influenza has been a catastrophic event for the poultry industry across the U.S. Jenny has summarized the message we are getting in Nebraska, but I think it is applicable to poultry farmers and consumers everywhere.

JenREESources's Extension Blog

Dr. Sheila Purdum, Nebraska Extension Poultry Specialist asked us to share the following

Photo courtesy Nebraska Extension Poultry page: https://animalscience.unl.edu/anscextensionpoultry Photo courtesy Nebraska Extension Poultry website.

information about avian influenza.  Unfortunately, Nebraska has HPAI H5N2 in a commercial flock of laying hens in Dixon County. This is the same virus that has been infecting turkeys in MN and WI and laying hens in the state of IA for the past 3 months. It is a deadly flu virus to poultry, killing as many as 90% of the flock within 3 days of the first symptoms. The major source of the virus has been migrating waterfowl, but it is believed to be airborne now traveling on numerous vectors to include people’s clothing, vehicles and other animals that may have come into contact with migrating waterfowl excrement, dust, etc.

Biosecurity:

The good news is that Biosecurity measures such as disinfecting all equipment coming into contact with your bird’s environment…

View original post 472 more words

Global meat consumption increases by 3%, decreases by 1% in the U.S.

One of the daily publications I subscribe to is MeatingPlace. If you are interested in getting daily updates on meat industry happenings, then this publication is for you. Recently MeatingPlace reported about meat consumption trends, as released by Euromonitor International: Encouraging results for the fresh meat industry.

Euromonitor International reported the following meat market research:

– A 3% increase in the global meat market from 2014 to 2015, growing to reach 225 million tones.

Anastasia Alieva, Head of Fresh Food Research, attributes this growth to increased prosperity and rising populations. She indicates since 2009, India’s annual disposable income has increased by 95% and meat consumption increased by nearly 50% during the same time period.

– Poultry is the most popular meat in the world, increasing by 4% in volume to reach 85 billion tones in 2014.

– India, where 1/3 of the population is vegetarian, emerged as the top growing meat market in the world in 2014.

– In China, demand for beef and veal increased by 5%, where demand for pork increased by 3% in 2014. Again this is attributed to an increase in per capita disposable income.

– Meat demand decreased in some developed markets.

– Greece experienced the most severe decline of meat consumption in 2014, followed by Germany and the Netherlands.

– Meat consumption in the U.S. decreased by 1% in 2014. This is attributed to health concerns, ethical, sustainability, and religious issues that portray meat in a negative light. Additionally, more Westerners are trying vegetarian, vegan, pescetarian, flexitarian, or vegetable oriented diet.

– Lamb and goat consumption is increasing due to the rising interest of exotic and rare meats, as well as the popularity in Middle Eastern cuisine.

This research indicates that in developed countries, poultry has become certer of the plate for many consumers at the expense of red meat. Oppositely, in developing countries, consumers are seeking out higher priced, red meat in favor of pork or poultry.

meat map————————

Dr. Lindsay can also be found on:

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Egg Information…Fun Fact Friday

During the week I usually eat oatmeal for breakfast, as it fits into my schedule the best. But on weekends, I love a big breakfast of eggs and my favorite morning meat (bacon or ham). Since I am anticipating the breakfast that awaits tomorrow, I wanted to share some egg fun facts with you.

eggs
The edible incredible egg…

 

Did you know that a chicken produces an egg every 24-32 hours?

To produce 1 dozen eggs, a hen eats about four pounds of feed!

Most eggs are laid between 7 – 11 a.m.

Eggs are good for your eyes, they contain lutein. Lutein helps prevent age related cataracts and muscle degeneration.

The edible part of a chicken egg is about 74% water, 13% protein, 11% fat and 2% other (ash).

Chickens start laying eggs when they are 20 weeks of age.

There is no nutritional difference between white shelled eggs, brown shelled eggs, or blue/green shelled eggs – the egg color is usually the same color as the chicken’s ear lobes.

There are approximately 280 million egg laying birds in the U.S.; each produces 250-300 eggs per year … that’s 77 billion eggs produced annually in the U.S.!

Eggs 6-5-12
Eggs can come in a variety of colors – but there is no nutritional difference.

For more poultry facts go here and here.