Would Removing Beef from the Diet Actually Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions?

Happy Earth Day! Today is generally a day for us to be involved in doing something constructive for our community and our planet. It is also a time to reflect on the sustainability of the Earth and our resources.

The consumption of meat, specifically beef, gets a bad reputation for being perceived as a high emitter of greenhouse gases (GHG). This article share other sources of GHG. More importantly, it challenges you to think about food waste as a consumer, and the role you play in global concerns.

Facts About Beef

Ashley Broocks, Emily Andreini, Megan Rolf, Ph.D., and Sara Place, Ph.D., Oklahoma State University

This is a topic of discussion within the beef industry. The following article does not necessarily represent the opinion of the Beef Checkoff or the US Department of Agriculture. 

Many people have suggested that removing beef from the human diet could significantly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In reality, completely removing beef from the diet would likely not result in huge declines in GHG emissions and would have negative implications for the sustainability of the U.S. food system.

According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), beef cattle production was responsible for 1.9 percent of total U.S. GHG emissions in 2013. Comparing food production (essential for human life) to transportation and electricity (non-essential for human survival, but important to our modern lifestyles) is problematic. Electricity and transportation produce much of the GHG emissions in the…

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Animal Agriculture Alliance Symposium take-aways

I recently attended the Animal Agriculture Alliance’s 14th Annual Stakeholders Summit. It was a great summit with top-notch speakers, important and relevant topics, and great networking opportunities (you can find the agenda and full details here). This year the theme was the Journey to Extraordinary, focusing on transparency and opening the barn doors.

AAAI wanted to share some of the messages that resonated with me, via my twitter account that was blowing up last week. These are just a few of the messages, to follow the entire conversation check out #aaa15. Also, you can listen to the presentation recordings here

– Rising global temps will make it a challenge to provide a stable environment to grow food in the future.

– Hunger and food availability are very real issues in America!

– In depth look at food and ag by National Geographic.

– Lots of great Millennial research.

– The average U.S. family of four waste every 1 in 3 calories – Wow!

– 1 in 8 people suffer from hunger. Yet we still fight over safe Ag technologies (ie GMO).

– Retailers don’t like Ag to use a technology that they can’t defend to consumers.

– Mandatory GM labeling would add approx $500/yr/family in grocery costs!

– All food is local, it is just globally dispersed.

– Personable, passionate, and transparent people are good for Ag.

– Don’t throw your fellow producers under the bus for personal gain.

– Most animals get a perfect diet, they prob eat better than most people!

– Social media doesn’t replace one-on-one conversations with people – engage in person too.

– In order for teams to have a lot of innovation, they embrace the risk that comes with it!

– Stay calm and keep messages consistent! Good advice for a daunting interview.

– Start planning today if you don’t have a crisis management plan yet.

– Your employees are your best brand investors in the communities and at home.

As you can see the speakers, topics, and conversations were varied and diverse. There was some great information I can use instantly, and there is some stuff I will have to think on some more.

Do any of these message hit home for you?

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Dr. Lindsay can also be found on:

– Website (http://food.unl.edu/ag-and-food)
– Twitter/Instagram (agwithdrlindsay)
– Facebook (https://www.facebook.com/agwithdrlindsay)
– Pinterest (Lindsay Chichester-Medahunsi)

Meal Planning: 10 Tips from a beginner’s perspective

A lot of things I have read recently about food waste have referenced that having a plan for food is a main component to reducing food waste. It is estimated that Americans are wasting about 40% of food grown for human consumption! Wow.

Collectively, we can all contribute to reducing food waste, decreasing methane emissions of rotting food in landfills, and leave more money in our pockets. Today I want to chat about meal planning. I have been a come-and-go meal planner over the years. But in 2015, one of my goals was to be better at it. I want to share some of the things I have found that work for me.

1. Start small. I do not plan each and everything thing we eat for breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks 7 days a week. I just plan our evening meals, and usually just for five nights.

meal list2
Our menu for the next week.

2. Align your menu with your week. There are some weeks I have two to three night meetings, during those weeks a strict menu is not in the cards for me. If possible, I try to do the bulk of the cooking on the weekend prior to my week of meetings. It is a win-win in our house, I can take leftovers during the week and the Hubs has dinner on the nights I am gone.

3. Make a list. Have you ever gotten to the grocery store, just to realize you left your list at home? Ugh me too (I know what you are thinking, just make your list on your phone and then that is not a problem, I use my phone for a lot of things, but as my grocery list, it is just something I just have been able to do yet). For me the list is very important. I rely heavily on it for remembering what I need to get. I have also been that person that goes to the store with my mental list of four items, and I come home with $80 worth of stuff! Creating a list helps to just shop for what you need (reducing waste) and it keeps more money in your pocket by limiting impulse purchases. When I buy canned vegetables or dry goods I will also buy an extra here or there to keep a healthy supply in the pantry.

4. Don’t beat yourself up if the menu changes. I write down a list of things I plan to make during the week and decide the day before what we will be having, some people I know assign food items to each night. There is no right or wrong way to do it, do what works best for your family. Sometimes during the week something else comes up and I don’t get around to making something I had planned, we just move that item to the weekend (one of the reasons I usually just plan for five meals a week).

5. You don’t have to always cook. Some nights I come home and I just want to have a glass of wine and kick my feet up. Luckily no little people depend on us for food in those cases. On those nights I will just cut up cheese, fruit, vegetables, and gather some crackers. If we have french bread for dipping (sliced wheat bread just doesn’t do it for me), I will bust out some olive oil and balsamic vinegar. This meal is perfect on the nights where you don’t want to cook, clean your kitchen, or even be in the kitchen.

6. Have fun with it. I like to cook and try new recipes, so I challenge myself to try one to two new recipes a week. Some of these new recipes have turned into family favorites for us. Even with this goal, we still get stuck in the rut of having some of the same things over and over, that is when I start increasing the amount of new recipes I try.

7. Don’t forget the staples. As I said before, I only plan for our dinner meals, however I know our eating patterns and shop for those. Breakfast items usually consist of things like oatmeal, yogurt, milk, string cheese, toast, smoothies, fruit, or any combination. Lunch is either leftovers or sandwiches (meat/cheese or PBJ). Plus I always make sure we keep stuff on hand for spaghetti, which is great for a quick and easy meal and one meal the Hubs has mastered. Additionally, I always purchase fruits and vegetables that are great in a main dish or by themselves as a healthy snack. In our house having these things always on hand makes food prep for all meals easy.

8. Embrace your leftovers. With just two people in our household leftovers are pretty common. But we love leftovers. They are great to take for lunch in the following days. Sometimes we also have a “leftover night” where we eat all of the random leftovers, think of those nights as a 5-course meal nights 🙂 If you are not a leftover person, I encourage you to work on cutting your recipes so that you are only making what you can eat in that one setting, thus reducing food waste.

9. Random ingredients left at the end of the week. Sometimes you may not get around to making something you had planned, or you bought more of an ingredient than you needed for your recipe. It seems that every week I use up these random ingredients by making soup, stew, chili, smoothies, or salads. All of these are handy for using up leftover fruits, vegetables, meat, broths, and other ingredients.

10. Involve your family. When I bust out 10 new recipes a week, I ask Hubs to choose a couple he would like me to try. This works out well because I have already picked the ones I want, but he also gets a voice in choosing the final menu for the week. It is a better shared experience for both of us.

meal list
A list of what we have had in the last month.

I have found that by planning out evening menus we are saving money when we go grocery shopping, we very rarely throw away any food, and we are having fun cooking and tasting new recipes.

Do you plan your meals? What other tips do you have?

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Dr. Lindsay can also be found on:

– Website (http://food.unl.edu/ag-and-food)
– Twitter/Instagram (agwithdrlindsay)
– Facebook (https://www.facebook.com/agwithdrlindsay)
– Pinterest (Lindsay Chichester-Medahunsi)

Butchers, are you talking to yours? 21 conversations you should be having (if you are not already)

Growing up around livestock and raising our own meat, it didn’t dawn on me until I was in college that not everyone has a good relationship with their butcher or meat processor. In Extension I get questions from individuals and even organizations (that have donated meat to a charity) about how to best process the meat for their family/clientele. It is fun for me to visit with people about how to have meat processed to fit their needs and wants.

Today I want to share with you some of my tips and suggestions when talking to your butcher or meat processor about meat for your family. **Note – This article will focus on things to ask your butcher or meat processor, and not focus on the retail level, as most meat is already packaged and ready for us. At a local University meat lab or meat locker you have many more decisions to make and more control over how you want the meat processed/packaged.     1. What do butchers do?  In some cases the butcher may be doing the actual harvesting (taking the animal’s life for the benefit of humans) of the animal themselves, sometimes they may get the meat in wholesale cuts in which they break into smaller retail cuts, or they may be doing both. Generally a University meat lab or a local meat locker will do the entire process themselves. Retailers will just get the wholesale meat from a packer and cut it into retail friendly cuts.

wholsale meat cuts
Examples of wholesale meat cuts…

2. Identify the needs of your family first. Do you like to grill out? Do you like a Sunday roast? Are you a family on the go that requires convenience? Do you want all of the above? You can have it! But knowing what your end goals are will help the butcher guide you through the process.

3. Family size. Every year at Christmas my parents give Hubs and I a lamb (butchered and cut). Since it is just two of us we have 4 chops per package and the legs cut in half. A larger family will need their meat packaged differently than our family of two. This is a common question asked by butchers.

lamb chops
Two steaks and four lambchops to a package is perfect for my family of two.

4. Thickness. I like my steaks and chops to be 1 inch thick. For me this is the ideal size as they are not so thin that they dry out on the grill, and they are not so thick that the inside does not reach your ideal degree of doneness (i.e. well, medium, rare, etc.), but the outside gets over cooked. Your butcher will cut these to any size you want. In Nebraska we have a Husker porkchop. It is at least 1.5 inches thick, and is smoked! It is amazing. If you want something like this, ask your butcher.

5. Aging. Letting meat age increases the tenderness and flavor. This may take 2-3 weeks for a beef carcass, but the wait is well worth the final product. There are two types of aging: dry (the carcass hangs in a temperature controlled room for a certain time period) or wet aging (usually a certain wholesale cut (i.e.loin, rib) is put in cryovac plastic bags and left to age, a.k.a. in the bag).

6. Lean to fat. If you have a ground product made you can specify how lean you want it. The lean to fat ratio is often shown as 80/20 – meaning the lean number is first and the second number is the fat. The leaner you make it, the less fat it will have in it. This may sound ideal, but it can become tricky as there will be less fat to flavor your meat and keep things moist while you are cooking. I usually get 85/15 or 90/10, and then remove any fat that I do not want. At this ratio my burgers even stay moist on the grill.

burgers on the grill
Juicy burgers on the grill.

7. Explore and experiment. You may not know that some cuts even exist, as they are not common in some retail markets. For example, shanks (the forearm) are excellent when cooked over slow, moist heat; tri-tip is a California favorite; Denver steak is a fairly new cut from the shoulder region; ox-tail for soups or stews; and the variety meats (will get to that in a minute). Ask your butcher about trying some new (to you) cuts of meat, or meats that they may process differently than you are accustomed to. Livestock farmers and ranchers help support research to develop new cuts of meat, to learn more check out the Beef Innovations Group here.

tongue tacos
Tongue (a.k.a. lengua) tacos.

8. Variety meats, a.k.a. Offal. These are the organ meats – liver, tongue, heart, kidneys, etc. And yes, they are perfectly safe and healthy for consumption, and they are delicious. Tongue is my personal favorite, as it can be made into a stew, pickled, pan fried for tacos, etc. (I need to do a post on tongue!). The butcher may or may not ask you about these, as most people do not want them. However, if you are a foodie and enjoy trying new things, I encourage you to take them. Also, in the past I have asked them to be thrown in the trim that will make up my ground product. I am not wasting them, and the vitamins and minerals are being used by my family (and no ones has to know but you :)). In all seriousness, variety meats are usually exported because we don’t consume them as much in America, however, I think you would like them if you tried them.

9. Packaging. Butchers vary on how they will package your meat. It may be in the white butcher paper or it may be in the transparent cryovac bags. While both methods are completely normal and acceptable, keep in mind that meat can go bad in the freezer, it is subject to freezer burn over time. When purchasing meat in a large quantity it is tempting to try some of the new stuff, but moving the older stuff to the front and using it up first will result in less food waste.

10. Get a variety of cuts. If you are like me you may love hamburgers, but you do not want to eat hamburgers everyday. I like to get a variety of meat cuts. I have found though that we generally have a lot of ham and roasts left, and we run out of the ground product first. Knowing our eating patterns helps me adjust my order next time so that there is a better balance of product.

11. How do you like your sausage? If you get a pig processed you will need to decide how you want your sausage made. First, you do not have to have it all made into sausage, you can have some just ground (which is great for stir-fry). Your butcher may offer you several different sausage flavors (mild, medium, spicy, maple, etc.). If you cannot choose or are worried the spicy may be too much for your family, see if you can purchase a small sample of sausage they have in their retail cabinet and take it home for a taste test. There is nothing worse than getting home and being disappointed in what you chose, after-all there is no refund on meat.

12. Smoking. People generally get the belly and hams smoked on a pig. You do not have to, you can leave them unsmoked! This is generally a good option for people who like to smoke their own food and enjoy the DIY. I do prefer to have them smoke my bacon, as I would hate to mess that up! Also, if you realize you may not eat a lot of whole hams, the butcher can cut those whole hams into ham steaks, which can be a better option if you are looking for smaller ham portions.

smoked meats
Smoked meat – YUM!

13. Other processed goods. Your butcher may give you the option to make some of your meat into meat sticks, bratwurst, jerky, chorizo, etc. This is a great option if you want flexibility or are a family on the go. More processed meats will mean less packages of other meat cuts. You will need to determine what is best for you.

ribs
Beef ribs going into the oven for dry heat cooking.

14. Identify your favorite cuts as non-negotiables. I love ribs, I always make sure I ask for the most ribs possible when I get meat processed. For me this is a non-negotiable item. If you are not a rib person, then you may want this meat cut off and want it as stew meat instead. Sometimes placing an order with the butcher can be overwhelming, by deciding what cuts you must have first then building the rest of your order around that will help make things easier.

15. Soup bones. As a carcass is processed and cut to meet your specifications, there may be some large bones that are left. These large bones are perfect for soup bones or as bones for your dog. Some butchers can also smoke these bones for you, adding a great smoky flavor to your favorite dish. And ask them to cut the bones into 1-3 inch segments for you. Throwing an entire femur bone into the soup pot is not an option, but throwing in 3-4 smaller bone pieces is a better option.

16. Tenderized. Do you love chicken fry steak/chicken/pork? You can have that! Often times your butcher will take a lean cut, like a ham or round roast and run them through a tenderizer to give you the perfect cut for a chicken fry experience. If this appeals to you, just ask!

17. Write it down. After going through the whole process of making the perfect meat order for you and your family, write down what you ordered and how much of everything you ordered. It may be a long period of time before you need more meat after making a big purchase, and in between those visits you will forget. But if you write down what you did last time, it gives you an idea of what to do next time or where to make adjustments, if needed.

18. What will it cost? If you bring an animal in to be harvested, you will be charged a fee. You may be charged a minimal daily fee for the time the carcass hangs. Depending on the butcher you will usually be charged a per pound fee for the processing. If you get anything smoked, made into sausage, or further processed (meat sticks, bratwurst, etc.), there is usually another fee. Be sure to have your butcher walk through these fees with you, as it may determine what you do and do not have done. In the past when I have had beef and pigs processed, the total price that I paid for the animal and for it to be processed averaged $3-$4 per pound of product I took home. This is usually much cheaper than if I would have bought it all at the retail level. To me that is reasonable as I got to totally customize my order and I knew where my meat was raised. It may seem like a big chuck of change, but if you average it over the months you consume the product it becomes very cost effective.

19. What if I don’t like something when I get home? While this has never happened to me, I have heard of people not liking the flavor of the cure used for smoked products or the seasoning in processed meats. Call the butcher and let them know. Chances are there was either a rare mistake made somewhere or your taste buds and the flavoring don’t jive. While the butcher’s hands may be tied on what they can do, they may be able to give you a credit on your next order, or they may even offer to exchange what you have for product out of their retail case. If you know you are sensitive to an ingredient or a flavoring, it is always a good idea to ask for a small sample you can take home before committing to a large batch of something. Butchers don’t make money with unhappy customers.

lambchops
Lambchops

20. Can you watch? In college I worked at my University meat lab. People were always interested to see the process of the harvest and the meat processing. Since we were a University, they could watch at a safe distance wearing the appropriate attire. If this is something you have a desire to see/do, ask your butcher. The worst they can do is tell you no. Most of the time we were happy to have people watch as everything we did was done quickly and as humanely as possible. During processing we closely followed the cleanliness standards we had established. But this will depend on your butcher and what their policy is.

21. USDA inspection. All facilities that harvest, process, and sell meat must be federally or state inspected by the USDA. The USDA ensures that animals are harvested humanely and that the meat they produce is wholesome and safe for human consumption.

Butchers are great people to know. They can make meat recommendations, provide cooking tips, and may even have a sample of two for you to try when you stop to visit. They want to make you happy and ensure your meat processing process goes as smooth as possible. Don’t be afraid to ask 100 questions or to admit your a meat novice, they are there to help.

What other questions do you have about selecting or purchasing meat? Any other tips or suggestions that I missed?

Porkchops
You can even buy in bulk and slice and freeze your own meat!

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Dr. Lindsay can also be found on:

– Website (http://food.unl.edu/ag-and-food)

– Twitter/Instagram (agwithdrlindsay)

– Facebook (https://www.facebook.com/agwithdrlindsay)

– Pinterest (Lindsay Chichester-Medahunsi)